birth date is maintained in his School Leaving Certificate, his extensive tsarist Russia police file, a police arrest record from April 18, 1902 which gave his age as 23 years, and all other surviving pre-revolution documents. According to Montefiore, Stalin 's friendships "meandered between love, admiration, and venomous jealousy". 00447 was issued, directed against "ex- kulaks " and other "anti-Soviet elements" (such as former officials of the Tsarist regime, former members of political parties other than the communist party, sociology past papers research methods etc.). Knickerbocker also wrote about dekulakization: "It is a conservative estimate to say that some 5,000,000 kulaks. Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd. When Trotsky had been eliminated Stalin then joined Bukharin and Rykov against Zinoviev and Kamenev, emphasizing their vote against the insurrection in 1917.
The Russian people had tired from the world war and the civil war, and Stalin's policy of definition of general statement in an essay concentrating on building " Socialism in One Country" was viewed as a practical antidote to war (compared to Trotsky's calls for Permanent Revolution) Stalin took great advantage. Conquest, Robert (1973) 1968. 910 At the same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia, much of which relies upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of source material. In turn, Stalin gathered the Eastern European nations that were absorbed into the Soviet sphere after the Second World War under the umbrella of the. They offered to exchange him for Fieldmarshal Paulus, but Stalin turned the offer down, allegedly saying "A lieutenant is not worth a general." Others credit him with saying "I have no son to this offer, and Yakov is rumored to have been accidentally electrocuted. Thurston, Robert (1998) 1996. Stalin was convinced that the western powers were scheming to give Hitler carte blanche to attack the Soviet Union. (NY: Oxford University Press, 1991, isbn ). According to recent figures, of an estimated four millions Prisoners of War taken by the Russians, (including Germans, Japanese, Hungarians, Romanians and others some 580,000 never returned, presumably victims of privation or the Gulags. The verses ridiculed a Kremlin highlander with a criminal past and part Ossetian descent.