remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. However, they agreed not to block Hayes' inauguration based on a "back room" deal. The and contrast essay words younger scholars conclusively demonstrated that there was no unified economic policy on the part of the dominant Republican Party. It was designed to put the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution, but it went much further. 78 Jefferson Davis was held in prison for two years, but other Confederate leaders were not. 223 224 Re-establishment of white supremacy meant that within a decade African Americans were excluded from virtually all local, state, and federal governance in all states of the South. 200 Democrats and many northern Republicans agreed that Confederate nationalism and slavery were deadthe war goals were achievedand further federal military interference was an undemocratic violation of historic Republican values. 115 116 The carpetbaggers inserted provisions designed to promote economic growth, especially financial aid to rebuild the ruined railroad system. By December 6, 1865, the amendment was ratified and Johnson considered Reconstruction over.
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Sumner preferred at first impartial requirements that would have imposed literacy restrictions on blacks and whites. Exceptions included South Carolina; at the end of Reconstruction, four of its five Congressmen were African American. 6 The usual ending has always been 1877. Ames fled the state as the Democrats took over Mississippi. 199 Similarly, the Red Shirts, another paramilitary group, arose in 1875 in Mississippi and the Carolinas. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011. In April 1862, the joint session of Congress met, however, the border states were not interested and did not make any response to Lincoln or any Congressional emancipation proposal.
226 More recent work by Nina Silber, David. Atlanta,.: Confederate Publishing Company. Most in the Northern states including President Lincoln were more concerned with preserving the Union rather than fighting for the freedom of all. 173 The taxes would serve as a market-based system for redistributing the land to the landless freedmen and white poor. Congress passed a statute that gave the President the authority to suspend the appropriations of any tribe if the tribe is "in a state of actual hostility to the government of the United States. Month by month, the unrepublican character of the regime looked more glaring." 125 Politics edit Grant: the Radical President edit Main article: Presidency of Ulysses.
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