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Norwich, John Julius (1982). Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement. For example, embassies to the capital would often stay on for years. Inhabited by snakes, scorpions, and wild beasts." The Arab chronicler Ibn al-Athir reports that Ibrahim brought back 100,000 captives and a vast booty loaded on the backs of ten thousand camels. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western church music. The Western Roman Empire The Eastern Roman/Byzantine Empire Restored section of the Theodosian Walls In 330, Constantine moved the seat of the Empire to Constantinople, which he founded as a second Rome on the site of Byzantium, a city strategically located on the trade routes. Why Angels Fall: A Journey through Orthodox Europe from Byzantium to Kosovo. He had married Andreas' sister, Sophia Paleologue, whose grandson, Ivan IV, would become the first Tsar of Russia ( tsar, or czar, meaning caesar, is a term traditionally applied by Slavs to the Byzantine Emperors). 13,1923, 25, 2830, 35,. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. His campaigns fundamentally altered the balance of power in the East, forcing the Turks onto the defensive, while restoring many towns, fortresses, and cities across the peninsula to the Byzantines. Under Theodosius I (r.
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